Cataract (Hindi: Safed Motia or Motiabind) is age related changes in the natural lens of the eye leading to opacification and consequently causing blurring of vision. It starts after 5th decade of life and usually progresses with the age.The symptoms of cataract can vary according to the area of the lens involved and the blurring is early and more pronounced when central part is opacified as compared to the peripheral part of the lens. The other other symptoms may be blurring of vision in bright light(Glare) , Coloured rings around the lights (Haloes), Multiple blurred images of an object (Polyopia), Blurring of vision in dim light, Difficulty in reading and driving, Repeated quick change in glasses power, eye strain and headache etc.Causes of cataract are injury (Traumatic cataract), Diabetes mellitus and various other diseases and thus can occur earlier also. In new born and infants it occurs due to genetic reasons or poor maternal health and diseases during pregnancy and then is called Congenital Cataract.
TREATMENT OF CATARACT
Definitive treatment of cataract is surgical removal of the cataractous lens followed by lens implantation. There is no drug or diet available for reducing cataract.Latest methods performed at our hospital includes MICS, PHACO, SICS, ECCE, ICCE. Most commonly performed and affordable procedure is PHACO or PHACOEMULSIFICATION.
TFAQ'S ABOUT CATARACT SURGERY
A cataract is an opacification of the natural transparent lens causing blurry, cloudy, or distorted vision. It usually occurs as normal aging process. The human lens is located just behind the iris, or the coloured part of the eye. A healthy lens is clear and flexible, allowing us to see focused images. The original meaning of "cataract" is “WATERFALL”, because the type of visual defect seen from cataractious eye is similar to as if you seeing through a waterfall.
Usually Cataract occurs in 50% of people by the age of 65 and in 95% by the age of 75. So, practically anybody and everybody can develop cataract, who lives long enough, so they are considered a normal part of the aging process, similar to greying of hair and aging of skin. Diabetes, steroid use, trauma, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension excess levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the body and excessive sunlight or radiation exposure are certain factors can speed up cataract formation. Cataracts can develop in children due to some genetic or hereditary conditions or due to some problem during development of the foetus.
Generally, many people discover they have a cataract only when they visit their eye doctor for new glasses. But there are some visual (symptoms) problems which might help us to know that Cataract is there. Common symptoms of cataracts include blurring of the vision. Colours may appear too dull or too bright and the same is felt for light. The symptoms vary according to the type of the cataract. The nuclear cataract causes a short term improvement in an individual’s vision. This phenomenon called the ‘second sight’. In contrast, sub-capsular cataract fails to exhibit symptoms unless fully developed.
NO. The cataract usually develops very slowly and painlessly, and is age related process. So, we don’t to panic for it. Caution, this Does not mean One should not get cataract removed. One should get it removed in proper time after consulting your Ophthalmic surgeon. If Cataract is not treated, it may turn into complicated cataract, which is very difficult to treat and may even lead to permanent loss of vision.
There are no known medicines to stop or reverse this change. Surgery is the only definitive treatment. Cataract surgery has an overall success rate of 97 percent or greater. With the use latest and advance Techniques developed over the period of time, this surgery has become most safe and with very high success rates.
The Types of Cataract Surgeries done these are SICS, PHACO, MICS and FLACS. Most Commonly done preocedures among these are PHACO and MICS.
During Cataract Surgery, the natural Opacified lens is removed and replaced by new artificial human made lens (called Intra Ocular Lens) through small hole (or an incision). This is done with the use of highly advance machines. The techniques such as SICS, PHACO, MICS, and FLACS mainly differs in incision made through which opaque natural lens is removed and new Lens is inserted.
A Typically Uncomplicated cataract surgery often takes no longer than about 10 to 15 minutes to perform. But immediately after the surgery, you will need to rest in a recovery area until you are less groggy from anesthesia. Typically this takes about 30 minutes to an hour.
For a safe and fast recovery from cataract surgery, take following precautions:
1. Use Dark Glasses for a week after surgery.
2. Take your medications and eye drops as prescribed your doctor for smooth recovery.
3. Avoid sneeze or vomit right after surgery.
4. Don't do any heavy lifting or strenuous activity for a few weeks.
5. Don't drive on the first day.
6. Avoid bending over, to prevent putting extra pressure on your eye.
7. Don't rub your eyes, which is a good idea even when you aren't recovering from surgery.
8. Don't expose your eye to irritants such as dust, pollens and wind during the first few weeks after surgery.
9. Avoid use of water on face like swimming or using a hot tub during the first week, to reduce risk of infection.
10. Be careful walking around after surgery, and don't bump into doors or other objects.
Cataract Surgery is usually performed in one eye at a time. So, if one need’s cataract surgery in both eyes, the eye surgeon will wait for at least a few days to two weeks for your first eye to recover before performing a surgery on the second eye.